Start with Net Income
The operating activities cash flow is based on the companyвЂ™s net income, with adjustments for items that affect cash differently than they affect net income. The net income on the Propensity Company income statement for , is $4,340. On PropensityвЂ™s statement of cash flows, this amount is shown in the Cash Flows from Operating Activities section as Net Income.
Add Back Noncash Expenses
Net income includes deductions for noncash expenses. To reconcile net income to cash flow from operating activities, these noncash items must be added back, because no cash was expended relating to that expense. The sole noncash expense on Propensity CompanyвЂ™s income statement, which must be added back, is the depreciation expense of $14,400. On PropensityвЂ™s statement of cash flows, this amount is shown in the Cash Flows from Operating Activities section as an adjustment to reconcile net income to net cash flow from operating activities.
Gains and/or losses on the disposal of long-term assets are included in the calculation of net income, but cash obtained from disposing of long-term assets is a cash flow from an investing activity. Because the disposition gain or loss is not related to normal operations, the adjustment needed to arrive at cash flow from operating activities is a reversal of any gains or losses that are included in the net income total. A gain is subtracted from net income and a loss is added to net income to reconcile to cash from operating activities. PropensityвЂ™s income statement for the year 2018 includes a gain on sale of land, in the amount of $4,800 the site, so a reversal is accomplished by subtracting the gain from net income. On PropensityвЂ™s statement of cash flows, this amount is shown in the Cash Flows from Operating Activities section as Gain on Sale of Plant Assets.
Adjust for Changes in Current Assets and Liabilities
Because the Balance Sheet and Income Statement reflect the accrual basis of accounting, whereas the statement of cash flows considers the incoming and outgoing cash transactions, there are continual differences between (1) cash collected and paid and (2) reported revenue and expense on these statements. Changes in the various current assets and liabilities can be determined from analysis of the companyвЂ™s comparative balance sheet, which lists the current period and previous period balances for all assets and liabilities. The following four possibilities offer explanations of the type of difference that might arise, and demonstrate examples from Propensity CompanyвЂ™s statement of cash flows, which represent typical differences that arise relating to these current assets and liabilities.
Increase in Noncash Current Assets
Increases in current assets indicate a decrease in cash, because either (1) cash was paid to generate another current asset, such as inventory, or (2) revenue was accrued, but not yet collected, such as accounts receivable. In the first scenario, the use of cash to increase the current assets is not reflected in the net income reported on the income statement. In the second scenario, revenue is included in the net income on the income statement, but the cash has not been received by the end of the period. In both cases, current assets increased and net income was reported on the income statement greater than the actual net cash impact from the related operating activities. To reconcile net income to cash flow from operating activities, subtract increases in current assets.
Propensity Company had two instances of increases in current assets. One was an increase of $700 in prepaid insurance, and the other was an increase of $2,500 in inventory. In both cases, the increases can be explained as additional cash that was spent, but which was not reflected in the expenses reported on the income statement.